Braunite R090057



Name: Braunite
RRUFF ID: R090057
Ideal Chemistry: Mn2+Mn3+6SiO12
Locality: N'Chwaning III Mine, N'Chwaning Mines, Kalahari manganese fields, Northern Cape Province, South Africa
Source: Marshall Sussman
Owner: RRUFF
Description: Blocky lustrous black crystals on fine-grained matrix of the same material. Note that this is braunite II, as defined in de Villiers (1980)
Status: The identification of this mineral has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction.
Mineral Group: [ Braunite (5) ]
Quick search: [ All Braunite samples (4) ]
RAMAN SPECTRUM 
RRUFF ID:
Sample Description: Unoriented Raman on the primary sample
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BROAD SCAN WITH SPECTRAL ARTIFACTS
RRUFF ID: R090057
Wavelength:
Sample Description: Unoriented Raman on the primary sample
Instrument settings: Thermo Almega XR 532nm @ 100% of 150mW
POWDER DIFFRACTION 
RRUFF ID: R090057.1
Sample Description: Powder
Cell Refinement Output: a: 9.431(1)Å    b: 9.431(1)Å    c: 37.80(1)Å
alpha: 90°    beta: 90°    gamma: 90°   Volume: 3361.9(8)Å3    Crystal System: tetragonal
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Calculated diffraction file.

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Output file from the Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Includes device headers and XY data.

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Output file from the Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Includes device headers and XY data.

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REFERENCES for Braunite

American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database Record: [view record]

Anthony J W, Bideaux R A, Bladh K W, and Nichols M C (1990) Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson Arizona, USA, by permission of the Mineralogical Society of America. [view file]

Haidinger W (1826) On the crystalline forms and properties of the manganese ores, The Edinburgh Journal of Science, 4, 41-50   [view file]

Haidinger W (1828) Mineralogische Beschreibung der Manganerze IV. Brachytypes Manganerz, Braunit, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 14, 197-211   [view file]

Turner E (1828) Chemical examination of the oxides of manganese. Part II. On the composition of the ores of manganese described by Mr. Haidinger, The Philosophical Magazine, 4, 96-104   [view file]

Abs-Wurmbach I, Langer K (1975) Synthetic Mn3+ kyanite and viridine, Al2-xMn3+x) SiO5, in the system Al2O3--MnO--MnO2--SiO2, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 49, 21-38

Moore P B, Araki T (1976) Braunite: its structure and relationship to bixbyite, and some insights on the genealogy of fluorite derivative structures, American Mineralogist, 61, 1226-1240   [view file]

de Villiers J P R (1980) The crystal structure of braunite II and its relation to bixbyite and braunite, American Mineralogist, 65, 756-765   [view file]

Bhattacharyya P K, Dasgupta S, Fukuoka M, Roy S (1984) Geochemistry of braunite and associated phases in metamorphosed non-calcareous manganese ores of India, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 87, 65-71

Robie R A, Huebner J S, Hemingway B S (1995) Heat capacities and thermodynamic properties of braunite (Mn7SiO12) and rhodonite (MnSiO3), American Mineralogist, 80, 560-575   [view file]

Marescotti P, Frezzotti M L (2000) Alteration of braunite ores from Eastern Ligeria (Italy) during syntectonic veining processes: minerology and fluid inclusions, European Journal of Mineralogy, 12, 341-356

Bevan D J M, Martin R L (2008) The role of the coordination defect: A new structural description of four fluorite-related sesquioxide minerals, bixbyite (Mn2O3), braunite (Mn7SiO12), braunite II (CaMn14SiO24), parwelite (Mn10Sb2As2Si2O24), and their structural relationships, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 181, 2250-2259